From Renewable Roadmap to Operational Planning

Capacity Expansion Planning and Dispatch Optimization

Steady-state and dynamic grid analysis for renewable integration has been Energynautics’ core business since company inception. Such technical studies require detailed inputs concerning power system setup and operation, which are typical outputs of techno-economic optimization and planning models. Long term planning with a time horizon of years to decades determines the optimal portfolio of generation and grid assets, while operational planning aims to optimize their use. Energynautics have in the past years gathered significant experience in such techno-economic planning studies using multiple different software solutions.

The company’s grid analysis experience has been expanded with the economic expertise required in today’s renewable energy planning landscape. With renewable energy and storage now often economically strongly competitive, the demand for integrated resource planning and co-optimization of generation and grid infrastructure is rising. Energynautics offer the expertise required to conduct comprehensive planning studies including capacity optimization, dispatch simulation, steady-state and dynamic power system analysis – everything that is needed to ensure that the power system of the future is economically feasible and technically stable and reliable.

Energynautics currently use PLEXOS and PyPSA to conduct techno-economic optimization and provide inputs to the electrical analysis. HOMER is also available for quick analysis of small systems.

Depending on system location and size, budget, scope and timeline of the study, Energynautics will always identify the optimal software solution for the grid, and supply the experts and knowledge to handle the task at hand. Be it the development of an co-optimized generation-transmission expansion plan, dispatch diagnosis for future scenarios, a “what if” study for a multitude of scenarios, or detailed questions on ancillary services and management of variable renewable energy: Energynautics can conduct the necessary studies, present the results to power system stakeholders, and conduct training and capacity building to bolster the client’s in-house expertise on the matter at hand.


PyPSA: Customized Open Source Solution for Flexibility

Energynautics have been using Python-based power system simulation and optimization frameworks for more than a decade, including both open source and in-house tools. The latest and most encompassing software site used is Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA), an open source toolkit from an academic background. Energynautics have used PyPSA for power system planning and operational studies, including both capacity expansion planning (optimized system setup) and production simulation (optimized dispatch).

Out of the box, PyPSA is geared towards strategic studies of the European power system, a purpose for which it has also been used by Energynautics in multiple projects. However, the Energynautics development team have also included a number of add-on functionalities, greatly expanding the scope of services the software can be used for:

  • Calculation of flow-based market coupling (FBMC) constraint spaces for use in market simulation software such as BALMOREL
  • Optimization of redispatch after import of market results
  • Security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) and optimal power flow (SCOPF) based on generation unit characteristics, using mixed-integer solver engines Gurobi or HiGHS
  • Detailed generation unit modelling including complex efficiency and cost functions
  • Detailed modelling of hydro cascades and storage
  • Optimization of ancillary services such as primary and secondary reserve
  • Pre-optimization of resource use and outage management


PLEXOS: Commercial High-End Simulation Tool

Energy Exemplar PLEXOS is a commercial power system simulation software site, including mixed-integer functionality for capacity expansion as well as production simulation. Its vast range of functionality is more focused on economics than PyPSA, which comes from a distinct grid simulation and optimization background. Energynautics have used PLEXOS to develop integrated resource and resilience plans (IRRP) for Caribbean states. These included timed investment plans as well as security-constrained unit commitment and dispatch simulations for multiple key years. Energynautics recommend the use of PLEXOS especially if the software is already in use with the client – as is the case for many power utilities especially in smaller countries and power systems.


HOMER: Easy to Use Solution for Fast Results

HOMER Pro has been a long standing industry standard software for fast capacity optimization and dispatch simulation of small power systems. While more limited in its functionality – HOMER can only be used on systems with less than 20 generators, cannot deliver optimal investment timing and does not consider grid constraints – its easy usability and robustness makes it Energynautics’ premier choice whenever fast techno-economic results for an island system or microgrid are required. Energynautics have used HOMER to develop capacity expansion plans for the Galapagos Islands, the Bahamas, multiple Indonesian islands as well as off-grid and grid connected hybrid systems in Europe.

In brief
  • PyPSA as flexible open source solution for all power system optimization and simulation tasks
  • PLEXOS as commercial high-end tool for complex economic analysis
  • HOMER for quick analysis of small hybrid power systems

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A Selection of our References.

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Energynautics conducted an analysis to assess the technical viability of a new subsea HVDC connection between Spain and Italy.

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Load and Generation Projection for a German Utility

Energynautics compiled geographically detailed load and generation projections for the distribution grid of EWR Netz GmbH with a focus on the future growth of distributed generation and end-use electrification up to 2040.

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Low-cost, Grid-friendly Charging for Bangladesh

A smart charger for three-wheeler charging stations in Bangladesh was developed to mitigate the grid load during peak hours.

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EV Integration Handbook

Energynautics together with RE-xpertise developed a handbook on best practices for the integration of electric vehicles into the distribution grid.

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Power System Planning for IRRP Development in CARICOM States

On behalf of GIZ, Energynautics supported the Caribbean Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (CCREEE) with generation and grid expansion planning in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.

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NGESO Reactive Power Market Design

Development of a market-based solution for reactive power management in the GB transmission system, ensuring cost efficient provision to maintain system voltage security in a zero-carbon system.

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Development of Generator Models to Prove Grid Code Compliance

Power generating units require verification of certain capabilities in order to be connected to the electricity grid. This is (partly) done with precise simulation models. Energynautics develops these kind of simulation models for all kind of technologies.

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Optimal Asset Sizing for Markbygden Wind Farm

Energynautics developed the steady-state model of the third phase of Europe’s largest onshore wind farm and performed a series of techno-economic studies.

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Optimizing the Grid Operation by Using the FNN Control Box

The objective of the project is to develop a control box, the Smecon-Box, which combines local intelligence and central controllability for electric vehicles, photovoltaic systems, heat pumps and Co in order optimize the grid operation.

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Consultancy Services for the North Sea Wind Power Hub Programme

This study investigates the potential of offshore wind energy hubs in the North Sea in contrast to radially connected wind farms with the aim of optimizing the integration of offshore wind.

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Smart Inverters for Distributed Generation

Recommendations to incorporate smart inverters for increasing the PV hosting capacity in distribution grids and grid reliability.

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Ancillary Service Review for the Mexican Power System

Energynautics engineers supported one commissioner’s office of the Mexican regulator in their ongoing review of ancillary services needed for further increases in renewable energy contribution.

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Risk Management Guidelines for Solar PV Projects in Vietnam

The objective of this assignment was to develop handbooks on risk management – technical guidelines for ground-mounted and floating solar PV projects from the development to the dismantlement phase.

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Revision of Grid Codes for the Dominican Power System

Commissioned by GIZ, Energynautics conducted a revision of the transmission grid codes in the Dominican Republic to ensure their suitability for large scale VRE integration.

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Research Study on Sustainable Energy Transition and Energy Infrastructure Development Opportunities

The aim of the study was to provide input for the implementation of Resolution No 55 “Vietnam’s National Energy Development Strategy to 2030, vision to 2045” of Vietnamese Party’s Politburo and further orientations for sustainable energy transition in Vietnam.

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Role of Distribution Companies in Using Grid Support Services from Solar Rooftop PV Systems and Storage

Energynautics was commissioned by GIZ to analyse the services which can be provided by solar rooftop PV and battery storage to support the distribution grid in India.

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Distribution Grid Study in the Dominican Republic

Energynautics analyzed the maximum PV penetration levels in Dominican distribution grids.

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EU Network Codes for Estonia

Energynautics conducted a study on various aspects of grid codes, gathering international experience and accepted good practices for Estonian consortium.

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ETS Plus Emission Trading: Power Market Simulations for IFW

Energynautics was subcontracted by the IFW Kiel Institute for the World Economy within a larger project to evaluate the impact of rising emission prices on the power sector.

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Review of the Mongolian Grid Code

Energynautics was commissioned by the World Bank in 2018 to assist the Mongolian system operator to update their grid code.

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Transmission Grid Study Czech Republic

Energynautics was commissioned by a consortium of NGOs to conduct a high level transmission system study to investigate the impact of a large scale coal exit in the Czech Republic by 2030.

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REEP 1000 Islands: RE Integration in Indonesia

Commissioned by GIZ, Energynautics, Cadmus and ABO Wind provide technical support to Indonesian power system stakeholders until 2020. The project includes multiple island grid studies, development of tender documents, capacity building workshops and a revision of the distribution code.

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Vietnam Technology Assessment

Back in 2012, Vietnam published a smart grid roadmap which includes different phases for defining the smart grid implementation in Vietnam. In order to support the development of smart grids, Energynautics assessed the current smart grid progress and developed recommendations.

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PV Port & Store

India aims to install 40 GW solar PV capacity on rooftops by 2022. To support this target, Energynautics developed a standardized plug-and-play PV plus battery system which ensures uninterrupted power supply, maximization of self-consumption and peak shaving of high load peaks in the evening.

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Regional Capacity Development in ASEAN

In order to support the renewable energy development in the ASEAN region, Energynautics held three capacity building workshops to participants from utility networks, governments and other stakeholders in the public and private sector.

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Rooftop PV Policy in Vietnam

To support the Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam, Energynautics developed technical requirements for rooftop solar PV installations in Vietnam, taking existing regulations, international best practices, and local development targets into account.

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Power Quality Measurement Campaign at Al Zaatari PV Power Plant

A 12,9 MWp PV power plant was built to ensure the electricity supply for the Al Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan. In order to determine the influence of the PV plant on power quality, Energynautics conducted a power quality measurement campaign at several points in the local grid.

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Smooth PV

Smart Modelling of Optimal Integration of High Penetration of PV (Smooth PV) is a project which has the objective to develop advanced modeling and simulation tools using the software tool DIgSILENT/PowerFactory in order to evaluate the impact of a large-scale penetration of PV on the optimum economical design/operation of the distribution and transmission network.

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REEP 1000 Islands

GIZ has commissioned Energynautics to conduct pilot studies for renewable integration on two Indonesian islands. The Indonesian government has set a national target of 23% electricity from renewable sources by 2025. Hybrid systems on the more than 17,000 small Indonesian islands can contribute significantly to reaching this goal.

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Microgrids are a promising solution to facilitate the integration of renewable energies. 3DMicroGrid includes the design, development and demonstration (3D) of a future-proof active smart microgrid system to integrate and optimize multiple energy sources and loads.

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New innovative approaches are needed for a cost-efficient integration of renewables into the distribution grid. Energynautics analyses their effectiveness and refines their use for the BDEW traffic light concept.

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How-To Guide for Variable Renewable Energy Integration

How can variable renewable energy be integrated in the Philippine power system? Energynautics shows how with a step-by-step guide developed for the World Bank and the Philippine system operator!

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Innovative Grid Toolbox

Grid expansion is an essential flexibility option for integrating ever-greater shares of variable renewable energy: We show which innovative “tools” there are in order to optimally use the transmission grid.

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European Grid Study 2030/2050

100% renewables by 2050? Commissioned by Greenpeace, the study investigated how the European grid has to be cost-optimized in order to realize the Energy [R]evolution Scenarios.

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VDMA Study on the
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In case of voltage dips in the grid, gas engines have to remain grid-connected. Using modelling and simulations, we demonstrate the effectivity of different Fault-Ride-Through solutions.

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Grid Absorption Study Seychelles

Renewable energy in small island systems brings economic benefits as well as technical challenges: We reveal how wind and solar can be optimally integrated into the Seychelles power system.

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Barbados Grid Code Review

Energy policy target for 2029: 29% renewables. With this in mind, Energynautics reviewed the Barbados Grid Code and developed new Planning and Operation Codes.

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Renewables Grid Integration Study Costa Rica

100% renewables today: Made possible by excellent wind, solar and hydro resources. We show how the power system should be organized for reliable operation.

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IRENA Grid Code Study

Which aspects have to be considered when developing grid codes for integrating high shares of renewables while maintaining a reliable and stable power supply? We provide answers!

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Snoopi – Smart Network Control with PV Infeed

PV battery systems can do more than just optimize self-consumption: Our controller stabilizes the voltage and thus paves the way for a higher PV penetration.

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Cell Controller Project

Development and test of a universal high-end Smart-Grid-Controller. The highlight: Pure autonomous island operation of the distribution system based solely on distributed energy resources.

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Distribution System Study Rhineland-Palatinate

100% renewables by 2030, that’s what the state government is aiming for. We show what this aim will mean for the distribution system of RLP and how smart grids can contribute.

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